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Factors Of Success : A Little Book Describing T... !FREE!

While writing the book, Gladwell noted that "the biggest misconception about success is that we do it solely on our smarts, ambition, hustle and hard work."[4] In Outliers, he hopes to show that there are a lot more variables involved in an individual's success than society cares to admit,[4] and he wants people to "move away from the notion that everything that happens to a person is up to that person".[2] Gladwell noted that, although there was little that could be done with regard to a person's fate, society can still impact the "man"-affected part of an individual's success.[2] When asked what message he wanted people to take away after reading Outliers, Gladwell responded, "What we do as a community, as a society, for each other, matters as much as what we do for ourselves. It sounds a little trite, but there's a powerful amount of truth in that, I think."[2]

Factors of success : A little book describing t...

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In his introduction, Gladwell discusses the Roseto effect which enabled a small, close-knit town in Pennsylvania to have almost no history of heart disease, substance abuse, or societal ills, seemingly due to the supportive, comforting social environment of its Italian-descended population. The remainder of Outliers has two parts: "Part One: Opportunity" contains five chapters, and "Part Two: Legacy" has four. The book also contains an Introduction and Epilogue.[7] Focusing on outliers, defined by Gladwell as people who do not fit into our normal understanding of achievement,[4] Outliers deals with exceptional people, especially those who are smart, rich, and successful, and those who operate at the extreme outer edge of what is statistically plausible.[3] The book offers examples that include the musical ensemble the Beatles, Microsoft's co-founder Bill Gates, and the theoretical physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. In the introduction, Gladwell lays out the purpose of Outliers: "It's not enough to ask what successful people are like. [...] It is only by asking where they are from that we can unravel the logic behind who succeeds and who doesn't."[3] Throughout the publication, he discusses how family, culture, and friendship each play a role in an individual's success, and he constantly asks whether successful people deserve the praise that we give them.[3]

The book begins with the observation that a disproportionate number of elite Canadian hockey players are born in the earlier months of the calendar year. The reason behind this is that since youth hockey leagues determine eligibility by the calendar year, children born on January 1 play in the same league as those born on December 31 in the same year. Because children born earlier in the year are statistically larger and more physically mature than their younger competitors, and they are often identified as better athletes, this leads to extra coaching and a higher likelihood of being selected for elite hockey leagues. This phenomenon in which "the rich get richer and the poor get poorer" is dubbed "accumulative advantage" by Gladwell, while sociologist Robert K. Merton calls it "the Matthew Effect", named after a biblical verse in the Gospel of Matthew: "For unto everyone that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance. But from him, that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath."[8] Outliers asserts that success depends on the idiosyncrasies of the selection process used to identify talent just as much as it does on the athletes' natural abilities.[8]

Before the book concludes, Gladwell writes about the unique roots of his Jamaican mother, Joyce, a descendant of African slaves.[2] Joyce attended University College in London, where she met and fell in love with Graham Gladwell, a young mathematician. After moving together to Canada, Graham became a math professor and Joyce a writer and therapist. While Gladwell acknowledges his mother's ambition and intelligence, he also points out opportunities offered to his parents that helped them live a life better than those of other slave descendants in the West Indies. Gladwell also explains that, in the 18th century, a white plantation owner in Jamaica bought a female slave and made her his mistress. This act inadvertently saved the slave and her offspring from a life of brutal servitude.[9] As one of the slave's descendants, this turn of luck led to Gladwell's relatively successful position in life. Summarizing the publication, Gladwell notes that success "is not exceptional or mysterious. It is grounded in a web of advantages and inheritances, some deserved, some not, some earned, some just plain lucky",[9] and at the end of the book, he remarks, "Outliers wasn't intended as autobiography. But you could read it as an extended apology for my success."[3]

Outliers has been described as a form of autobiography, as Gladwell mixes in elements from his own life into the book to give it a more personal touch. Lev Grossman, writing in Time magazine, called Outliers a "more personal book than its predecessors", noting, "If you hold it up to the light, at the right angle, you can read it as a coded autobiography: a successful man trying to figure out his own context, how success happened to him and what it means."[3] He also surmised that Gladwell feels guilty about his success and believes that Christopher Langan should have experienced the same success that he had.[3]

David A. Shaywitz, reviewing the book in The Wall Street Journal, praised Gladwell's writing style as "iconic", and asserted that "many new nonfiction authors seek to define themselves as the 'Malcolm Gladwell of' their chosen topic."[8] He complimented its clarity and easy grace, but also pointed to these as possible Achilles' heels for Gladwell because of his oversimplification of complex sociological phenomena to "compact, pithy explanations".[8] Furthermore, he praised the book for asking some important questions, such as "How much potential out there is being ignored? How much raw talent remains uncultivated and ultimately lost because we cling to outmoded ideas of what success looks like and what is required to achieve it?"[8]

Jason Cowley, reviewing the book in The Guardian, felt that Outliers was an argument between Gladwell and himself, referring to the many times that he uses the word "we" when defining his position, such as in the example: "There is something profoundly wrong with the way we look at success. ... We cling to the idea that success is a simple function of individual merit and that the world in which we grow up and the rules we choose to write as a society don't matter at all."[20] He also believed that there was a "certain one-dimensional Americanness at work", observing that many of Gladwell's examples are from the United States, particularly in New York City.[20]

Finding it ironic that Outliers provided suggestions on how to resolve cultural biases, the Sunday Times review by Kevin Jackson agreed that the book itself suffered from an unbalanced focus on American subjects, predicting that this would lead to better sales in the United States than in the United Kingdom. Jackson was disappointed in the book's lack of new ideas, noting that it merely expands on the concept that "you have to be born at the right moment; at the right place; to the right family (posh usually helps); and then you have to work really, really hard. That's about it."[24] He was also skeptical towards Gladwell's arguments for the 10,000-Hour Rule by countering that the Beatles' success had more to do with "the youthful spirit of the age, the vogue for guitar bands and a spark of collaborative chemistry".[24] Regarding the book, Paul McCartney, former member of the Beatles, said in an interview on August 6, 2010:

[...] I've read the book. I think there is a lot of truth in it [...] I mean there were an awful lot of bands that were out in Hamburg who put in 10,000 hours and didn't make it, so it's not a cast-iron theory. I think, however, when you look at a group who has been successful... I think you always will find that amount of work in the background. But I don't think it's a rule that if you do that amount of work, you're going to be as successful as the Beatles.[25]

Other considerations were given to the desired objective of sustaining the changes after the implementation phase of the initiative ended.105 Investigators asserted that improving quality through initiatives needed to be considered as integral in the larger, organizationwide, ongoing process of improvement. Influential factors attributed to the success of the initiatives were effecting practice changes that could be easily used at the bedside;82 using simple communication strategies;88 maximizing project visibility, which could sustain the momentum for change;100 establishing a culture of safety; and strengthening the organizational and technological infrastructure.121 However, there were opposing viewpoints about the importance of spreading the steps involved in creating specific changes (possibly by forcing changes into the redesign of processes), rather than only relying on only adapting best practices.106, 121 Another factor was the importance of generating enthusiasm about embracing change through a combination of collaboration (both internally and externally)103 and healthy competition. Collaboratives could also be a vehicle for encouraging the use of and learning from evidence-based practice and rapid-cycle improvement as well as identifying and gaining consensus on potentially better practices.86, 98

Previous research from our team explored the role and the ethical perceptions of Clinical Research Nurses (CRNurses) specifically in relation to their roles, undertaking study recruitment and the informed consent process (Tinkler et al., 2018). The findings emerging from that study identified numerous factors that could adversely impact on successful research delivery. Factors included a range of intrinsic and extrinsic issues, such as role transition and the conflict between core clinical values and perceived pressure to recruit. Altered relationships with multidisciplinary colleagues and perceptions of how the CRNurses were viewed by the wider organisation led to reduced morale and contributed to staff turnover. Kunhunny and Salmon (2017) reported similar findings in relation to issues undermining the professional identity of CRNurses and role-related challenges. The work of Whitehouse and Smith (2018) has highlighted the need for clearer CRNurse strategies and structure, and further research into professional identity, understanding of the role by multi-professional team members and work to increase the evidence base regarding the role and impact. 041b061a72

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